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In the early 20th century, with the gradual disappearance of the "rustic simpleton" or "village idiot" character of everyday experience, North American circus and comedy developed derived characters such as the "tramp" or "hobo," notably spaniard Marceline Orbes Marceline the big star of the Hippodrome Theater on Broadway (1905) Charlie Chaplin's The Tramp (1914) and Emmett Kelly's Weary Willie (developed by in the 1930s based on the hobos of the Depression era).
Another influential "tramp" circus clown character was played by Otto Griebling during the 1930s to 1950s.
The now-classical features of the clown character were developed in the early 1800s by Joseph Grimaldi, who played Clown in Charles Dibdin's 1800 pantomime Peter Wilkins: or Harlequin in the Flying World at Sadler's Wells Theatre, where Grimaldi built the character up into the central figure of the harlequinade. The modern circus derives from Philip Astley's London riding school, which opened in 1768.
Astley added a clown to his shows to amuse the spectators between equestrian sequences. Fox became known for his clown role, directly inspired by Grimaldi, in the 1860s.
The "clown" character develops out of the zanni "rustic fool" characters of the early modern commedia dell'arte, which were themselves directly based on the "rustic fool" characters of ancient Greek and Roman theatre.
Rustic buffoon characters in Classical Greek theater were known as sklêro-paiktês (from paizein "to play (like a child)") or deikeliktas, besides other generic terms for "rustic" or "peasant".
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The first mainstream clown role was portrayed by Joseph Grimaldi (who also created the traditional whiteface make-up design).The clown character as developed by the late 19th century is reflected in Ruggero Leoncavallo's 1892 opera Pagliacci ("Clowns").Belling's Auguste character was further popularized by Nicolai Poliakoff's Coco in the 1920s to 1930s.Red Skelton's character in The Clown (1953), Dodo the Clown, depicts the circus clown as a tragicomic stock character, "a funny man with a drinking problem".
In the United States, Bozo the Clown was a very influential Auguste character since the late 1950s.
Clowns have a varied tradition with significant variations in costume and performance.